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Crypto Glossary/Fractional Stablecoins

Fractional Stablecoins

Fractional stablecoins are a type of cryptocurrency that maintain a stable value by being backed by a reserve of assets. They offer scalability, liquidity, and flexibility, but also come

TLDR - Fractional Stablecoins

Fractional Stablecoins are a type of cryptocurrency that are designed to maintain a stable value by being backed by a reserve of assets. Unlike traditional stablecoins that are fully collateralized, fractional stablecoins use a fractional reserve system, where the reserve is only a fraction of the total supply. This allows for greater scalability and liquidity, but also introduces some level of risk. Fractional stablecoins are often used as a medium of exchange and a store of value in the cryptocurrency ecosystem.

How Fractional Stablecoins Work

Fractional stablecoins are created by issuing tokens that represent a claim on a reserve of assets. These assets can include fiat currencies, commodities, or other cryptocurrencies. The reserve is typically held by a trusted custodian or a decentralized smart contract. The value of the stablecoin is maintained by ensuring that the reserve is always equal to or greater than the total supply of tokens in circulation.

When someone wants to acquire fractional stablecoins, they can do so by depositing the underlying assets into the reserve and receiving an equivalent amount of stablecoins in return. Conversely, when someone wants to redeem their stablecoins, they can do so by returning the stablecoins to the reserve and receiving the underlying assets in return.

The reserve of assets backing the stablecoins is managed in a way that ensures stability. This can be achieved through various mechanisms such as algorithmic adjustments, market-making activities, or a combination of both. The goal is to maintain a stable value of the stablecoin, usually pegged to a specific fiat currency like the US dollar.

Advantages of Fractional Stablecoins

Scalability: Fractional stablecoins offer greater scalability compared to fully collateralized stablecoins. By only requiring a fraction of the total supply to be backed by assets, fractional stablecoins can be issued in larger quantities without the need for a proportional increase in the reserve. This allows for increased liquidity and wider adoption.

Liquidity: Fractional stablecoins can be easily traded on cryptocurrency exchanges, providing users with a liquid asset that can be used for various purposes. The fractional reserve system allows for the creation of a larger supply of stablecoins, which in turn increases the liquidity of the market.

Flexibility: The fractional reserve system provides flexibility in managing the stablecoin's value. By adjusting the reserve ratio or implementing algorithmic mechanisms, stablecoin issuers can respond to market conditions and maintain the stability of the stablecoin's value.

Risks and Challenges

Reserve Risk: The main risk associated with fractional stablecoins is the reserve risk. Since only a fraction of the stablecoin supply is backed by assets, there is a potential for the reserve to become insufficient to cover all redemptions. This can lead to a loss of confidence in the stablecoin and a decrease in its value.

Regulatory Challenges: Fractional stablecoins may face regulatory challenges, as they blur the line between traditional financial systems and the cryptocurrency ecosystem. Regulators may impose restrictions or require additional oversight to ensure the stability and integrity of fractional stablecoins.

Market Volatility: While stablecoins aim to maintain a stable value, they are still subject to market volatility. External factors such as changes in the value of the underlying assets or market conditions can impact the stability of fractional stablecoins.

Use Cases for Fractional Stablecoins

Medium of Exchange: Fractional stablecoins can be used as a medium of exchange for everyday transactions. Their stable value makes them suitable for purchasing goods and services without the risk of price fluctuations commonly associated with other cryptocurrencies.

Store of Value: Fractional stablecoins can also serve as a store of value, providing users with a stable asset that can be held for longer periods. This can be particularly useful in regions with high inflation or limited access to stable fiat currencies.

Decentralized Finance (DeFi): Fractional stablecoins are often used in decentralized finance applications. They can be used as collateral for loans, providing users with access to liquidity without the need to sell their stablecoins. Fractional stablecoins can also be used in yield farming, liquidity pools, and other DeFi protocols.


Fractional stablecoins offer a scalable and liquid alternative to fully collateralized stablecoins. By using a fractional reserve system, these stablecoins can maintain a stable value while allowing for greater issuance and liquidity. However, they also come with risks, such as the potential for reserve insufficiency and regulatory challenges. Fractional stablecoins have various use cases, including being a medium of exchange, a store of value, and a key component of decentralized finance applications.

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