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Crypto Glossary/Selfish Mining

Selfish Mining

Selfish mining is a strategy where miners withhold newly discovered blocks to gain an unfair advantage. It can increase mining rewards but undermines network security and decentralization. Countermeasures include

TLDR - Selfish Mining

Selfish mining is a strategy employed by a group of miners in a blockchain network to gain an unfair advantage over other miners. By withholding the discovery of new blocks from the network, selfish miners can increase their chances of mining subsequent blocks, leading to a higher overall mining reward. This strategy exploits the inherent delay in propagating new blocks across the network, allowing selfish miners to effectively control the blockchain's growth and potentially undermine its security and decentralization.

Understanding Selfish Mining

Selfish mining is a controversial strategy that challenges the principles of fairness and decentralization in blockchain networks. It was first introduced in a research paper titled "Majority is not Enough: Bitcoin Mining is Vulnerable" by Ittay Eyal and Emin Gün Sirer in 2013. The paper highlighted the potential vulnerabilities in the Bitcoin network due to selfish mining.

How Selfish Mining Works

In a typical blockchain network, miners compete to solve complex mathematical puzzles to add new blocks to the blockchain. Once a miner discovers a valid solution, they broadcast the new block to the network, and other miners validate and add it to their local copy of the blockchain. However, due to network latency, it takes some time for the new block to propagate across the entire network.

Selfish mining takes advantage of this delay by not immediately broadcasting newly discovered blocks to the network. Instead, selfish miners keep the newly found blocks private and continue mining on top of them secretly. This allows them to extend the blockchain without the knowledge of other miners, effectively creating a separate, hidden chain.

When the selfish miners' hidden chain becomes longer than the public chain, they release their private chain to the network, causing other miners to discard their work on the public chain and switch to the selfish miners' chain. This results in the selfish miners gaining a higher mining reward than their fair share, as they have effectively invalidated the work done by other miners.

Advantages and Risks of Selfish Mining

Selfish mining offers several advantages to the miners employing this strategy:

  • Increased Mining Rewards: By withholding blocks, selfish miners can increase their chances of mining subsequent blocks, leading to a higher overall mining reward.
  • Reduced Mining Costs: Selfish miners can save on computational resources by not immediately broadcasting blocks to the network, allowing them to allocate resources more efficiently.
  • Disrupting Competitors: Selfish mining can disrupt the mining efforts of honest miners, potentially driving them out of the network or discouraging new miners from joining.

However, selfish mining also poses significant risks and challenges:

  • Undermining Network Security: Selfish mining can weaken the security of a blockchain network by concentrating mining power in the hands of a few participants, making the network more susceptible to attacks.
  • Reduced Decentralization: Selfish mining can lead to a more centralized network, as it incentivizes miners to join larger mining pools to increase their chances of executing the selfish mining strategy successfully.
  • Loss of Trust: Selfish mining undermines the trust and fairness of the blockchain network, potentially leading to a loss of confidence among users and stakeholders.

Countermeasures Against Selfish Mining

Several countermeasures have been proposed to mitigate the risks associated with selfish mining:

  • Block Withholding Detection: Network participants can implement mechanisms to detect selfish mining behavior by analyzing the timing and frequency of block submissions.
  • Block Propagation Improvements: Enhancing the efficiency of block propagation across the network can reduce the advantage selfish miners gain from withholding blocks.
  • Consensus Algorithm Modifications: Modifying the consensus algorithm, such as implementing a different mining algorithm or introducing penalties for selfish mining, can discourage or prevent selfish mining strategies.


Selfish mining is a strategy employed by miners to gain an unfair advantage in blockchain networks. By withholding newly discovered blocks, selfish miners can manipulate the blockchain's growth and increase their mining rewards. However, this strategy poses significant risks to network security, decentralization, and trust. Implementing countermeasures and fostering a collaborative mining environment are crucial to maintaining the integrity and fairness of blockchain networks.

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