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News/Ethereum's Long-Awaited Dencun Upgrade Goes Live

Ethereum's Long-Awaited Dencun Upgrade Goes Live

Van Thanh Le

Mar 14 2024

3 months ago4 minutes read
Ethereum dencun upgrade paves the way for a bright future with layer 2 solutions

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Ethereum Gets a Boost: Dencun Upgrade Unleashes Lower Fees and Brighter Future

Ethereum's long-awaited Dencun upgrade arrived at 1:55 pm UTC on March 13, 2024, embarking on a pivotal shift aimed at slashing its notorious data fees and turbocharging network efficiency. This upgrade isn't just another update; it's a radical reimagining of Ethereum's foundations, introducing "blob" transactions via EIP-4844. This ingenious approach to data storage marks a departure from the conventional gas system, revolutionizing transaction and rollup operations on the network.

Imagine transaction costs on bustling layer-2 networks such as ArbitrumOptimism, and Polygon tumbling by a staggering 75%. This isn't a mere speculation but a reality grounded in discussions with developers steering Ethereum's layer-2 projects. Such a dramatic cost reduction is poised to widen Ethereum's appeal, breaking down the barriers for executing on-chain projects and transactions. 

This seismic shift is powered by proto-danksharding, a stepping stone towards the danksharding vision, which optimizes data storage on the blockchain, making it both temporary and cost-effective—a stark contrast to the previous permanent and pricey storage solutions.

Ethereum dencun upgrade breaks through scalability limitations with layer 2 solutions.webp

The ripple effects of the Dencun upgrade are monumental, promising to alleviate network congestion, slash fees, and significantly boost Ethereum's scalability and performance. This upgrade is more than just a tweak; it's a beacon of hope for Ethereum's sustainable growth, opening the door to novel use cases. 

At the heart of Dencun's breakthrough is the vision of near-zero gas fees, thanks to its innovative data storage mechanisms. This upgrade is a timely intervention, addressing the pain of soaring gas fees at a critical juncture in Ethereum's journey.

Dencun doesn't just lower transaction costs; it's a bridge to the future, laying the groundwork for the full implementation of sharding, which will further amplify network scalability and efficiency. 

Moreover, it shines a spotlight on data availability solutions, empowering a new breed of blockchains within the Ethereum ecosystem designed to handle the data deluge from rollups. This interconnected scaling strategy is a testament to Ethereum's innovative spirit.

Fidelity Investments' analyst Max Wadington's report states that Ethereum's fee reductions won't impact mainnet users. To benefit from the fee change, users must transact on layer 2 solutions, sacrificing decentralization and security. Despite this, Ethereum is expected to remain the preferred choice for application-specific purposes, especially for high-value transactions, in the medium term.  

gas price.png
Gas fees on Ethereum mainnet on March 14. Source: Etherscan

The buzz around Dencun's launch has sent waves through the market, with layer-2 scaling solution tokens witnessing significant price movements. This market enthusiasm mirrors the community's optimism about the upgrade's transformative potential. 

As layer-2 fees plummet, the stage is set for a fierce fee war among networks vying for users with lower transaction costs. While the outcome of this rivalry is yet to unfold, Dencun's successful implementation is a critical milestone, heralding a new era of scalability and accessibility for Ethereum.

Ethereum's Dencun Upgrade Shakes Up L2 Landscape

Ethereum's Dencun upgrade has marked a revolutionary shift in data storage and cost dynamics for layer-2 networks. This update, celebrated for its potential to significantly cut costs, has stirred the crypto ecosystem, spotlighting tokens like Polygon (MATIC), Arbitrum (ARB), and Starknet (STRK). These tokens have seen impressive gains amidst a diverse crypto landscape, with MATIC and ARB appreciating by 6%-7% and STRK by a notable 6% over the last day, despite some pre-upgrade volatility.

The Starknet Foundation is already paving the way for even lower user costs, post-upgrade, signaling a future where efficiency meets innovation. Meanwhile, Optimism (OP) and other tokens showcased mixed results, capturing the unpredictable pulse of the market. The Ethereum chain itself held its ground, with its price hovering just shy of the $4,000 mark, underscoring the broader anticipation of the upgrade's impact on transaction costs and network activity.


Leading up to the upgrade, L2 tokens experienced a surge, buoyed by the prospect of more accessible, cheaper transactions. Notably, Arbitrum's ARB token escalated to $2.18, amid news of a substantial token release, while Polygon's MATIC hit a peak unseen since March 2023, thanks to an uptick in active addresses. The optimism wasn't just a sentiment but reflected in the OP token's climb to $4.5, signaling growing investor confidence.


However, not all was smooth sailing. The Blast Network, an innovative Ethereum scaling solution, encountered a hiccup, temporarily halting block production due to the upgrade. This incident, though swiftly managed, shed light on the complexities and challenges of enhancing blockchain infrastructure. It's a reminder of the delicate balance between progress and stability in the crypto realm.

The Dencun upgrade stands as a testament to Ethereum's ongoing evolution, promising a future where scalability and affordability converge. With its aim to lower transaction costs to mere cents and boost throughput, Ethereum is steadily advancing towards a rollup-centric model, ensuring its place at the forefront of blockchain innovation and utility.

Ethereum's Dencun Upgrade: A Mixed Bag of Optimism and Caution

The recent Dencun upgrade for Ethereum has sparked mixed reactions from industry experts. Not all are convinced of an immediate price surge for ETH, citing the stubborn persistence of high gas fees on the mainnet as a reminder of the hurdles still facing Ethereum's scalability ambitions.

Ruslan Lienkha of YouHodler tempers expectations for a swift uplift in Ethereum's price post-upgrade, seeing instead a slower burn towards long-term value. His reservations extend to the short-term prospects of Ether ETFs getting the green light from the U.S. SEC, though he remains hopeful for future approval. 

On the flip side, Mara Schmiedt of Alluvial bets on the upgrade's bullish potential, linking it to Ethereum's growing DeFi ecosystem and the need for greater institutional embrace and regulatory clarity.

Echoing the sentiment of incremental progress, Onno Sterk of OSL points to the Dencun upgrade as a crucial step in Ethereum's evolution, tackling the vexing issues of fees and scalability. 

Ethereum's dencun upgrade sets the blockchain machinery in motion with efficient layer 2 solutions.webp

James Wo of Digital Finance Group and Arthur Breitman of Tezos add depth to the discussion, highlighting the upgrade's strides in reducing transaction costs and improving data usability, while also noting the challenges that lie ahead.

The conversation doesn't end with technicalities, as market analysts like Michaël van de Poppe and Ali Martinez cast their predictions for Ethereum's price movements, spotlighting resistance levels and key holder activities. 

Amidst this analytical buzz, Eric Balchunas of Bloomberg dials back expectations for an imminent Ethereum ETF approval, pointing to a complex regulatory landscape.

Market dynamics provide a real-time backdrop to these analyses, with a notable 15,000 ETH move to exchanges raising eyebrows and speculations about whale strategies in anticipation of the upgrade's impact. 

Ethereum's Dencun Upgrade Slashes Layer-2 Fees

The Ethereum network's most complex upgrade since its transition to a Proof-of-Stake consensus mechanism has sent shockwaves through the crypto world. The Dencun upgrade has drastically reduced transaction fees across various Layer-2 networks, opening the door to a new era of widespread adoption.

At the heart of this game-changing development lies the introduction of "blobs" – temporary data storage mechanisms that streamline the process of posting rollup data for Layer-2 networks. By allowing for a more efficient and cost-effective way of handling this data, which is pruned from the blockchain after approximately 18 days to maintain network efficiency, blobs have sparked a revolution in transaction fees.

The impact has been nothing short of seismic. Base, a prominent Layer-2 network, witnessed its transaction fees plummet from $0.31 to a mere $0.0005, with an average fee reduction to around $0.18, down from $0.88. 

Optimism, another major player, saw its fees slashed to just a few cents, a far cry from the previous levels of over $1. But perhaps the most staggering transformation was witnessed on StarkNet, where fees experienced a jaw-dropping 99% reduction, with swaps now costing an average of $0.04, a monumental decrease from the over $6.8 fees observed before the Dencun upgrade.

L2 fees.png
Source: OKLink

Praised by industry titans like Brian Armstrong, CEO of Coinbase, and Eli Ben-Sasson, a board member at Starknet Foundation, the Dencun upgrade is being heralded as a catalyst for broader adoption of the Ethereum network. As they emphasize, this milestone paves the way for a "dApp-for-everything culture," making decentralized applications (dApps) more practical and accessible than ever before.

Underpinning this revolution is the introduction of proto-danksharding, a groundbreaking method of dividing large amounts of data into smaller pieces for quicker processing, translating into lower operational costs for Layer-2 networks and subsequently lower transaction costs for users. However, as Anthony Sassano, a core Ethereum developer, cautions, the current low transaction costs might not persist indefinitely due to expected increases in demand for blobs.

StarkNet, among the first to adopt the Dencun upgrade, has emerged as a shining example of the upgrade's swift implementation and substantial benefits, showcasing the rapid pace of innovation within the Ethereum ecosystem. While the launch of the Dencun upgrade initially triggered a slight slump in Ethereum's price, the market swiftly recovered, reflecting the community's confidence in the upgrade's transformative potential.

As Nick Dodson from Fuel Labs astutely observes, the primary advantage of the Dencun upgrade extends beyond mere fee reduction. It lies in fee stabilization and the expansion of network capacity and scalability – a crucial step towards accommodating millions of new users on the Ethereum network. With this upgrade, Ethereum has taken a giant leap towards realizing its vision of a decentralized, accessible, and scalable future.


Despite Ethereum's price consolidation near multi-year highs, the Dencun upgrade's arrival has not catapulted ETH past significant price milestones, underscoring a cautious market stance even as the long-term outlook for Ethereum remains bright, fueled by continuous innovation and a possible thaw in regulatory attitudes.


1. What is the Dencun upgrade and what are its goals?

The Dencun upgrade is a major update to Ethereum that introduces "blob" transactions and proto-danksharding. This aims to significantly reduce transaction fees and improve network scalability by making data storage on the blockchain more temporary and cost-effective.

2. How will the Dencun upgrade impact layer-2 scaling solutions?

The Dencun upgrade is expected to dramatically lower transaction fees on layer-2 networks like Arbitrum and Optimism. This could lead to a "fee war" among these networks as they compete for users. The upgrade also highlights the importance of data availability solutions for future scaling.

3. How has the market reacted to the Dencun upgrade?

There has been a mixed reaction to the Dencun upgrade. Tokens of layer-2 scaling solutions like MATIC, ARB, and STRK saw price increases, while the price of Ethereum itself remained relatively stable. There have also been some technical hiccups, highlighting the challenges of upgrading complex blockchain infrastructure.

4. What are experts saying about the long-term impact of the Dencun upgrade?

Experts are cautiously optimistic about the Dencun upgrade. While it may not lead to an immediate surge in Ethereum's price, it is seen as a crucial step towards solving Ethereum's scalability issues. The upgrade could also benefit the DeFi ecosystem and attract more institutional investment, but regulatory hurdles remain.

This article has been refined and enhanced by ChatGPT. 

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