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News/Ethereum's Pectra Upgrade: What You Need to Know

Ethereum's Pectra Upgrade: What You Need to Know

Van Thanh Le

Jun 17 2024

4 weeks ago5 minutes read
Cubic robot upgrading blockchain with digital data flows

What is the Ethereum Pectra Upgrade and Why is it Important?

The Ethereum Pectra upgrade is a landmark milestone in Ethereum’s development, expected to roll out in late 2024 or Q1 2025 (as per Ethereum educator Anthony Sassano). Combining the Prague upgrade for the execution layer and the Electra upgrade for the consensus layer, it aims to significantly enhance the network's performance and scalability.

This dual upgrade introduces several Ethereum improvement proposals (EIPs) designed to optimize various aspects of the blockchain. Key features include EIP-3074, which enhances wallet functionality by allowing batch transactions, and EIP-7251, which increases the staking limit for validators from 32 ETH to 2,048 ETH. Additionally, Peer Data Availability Sampling (PeerDAS) improves roll-up scalability, and the EVM Object Format (EOF) enhances smart contract security.

Delving deeper into the upcoming dual upgrade’s key features, let’s explore how these enhancements are set to revolutionize Ethereum's performance and scalability. 

Key Takeaways

  • Ethereum Pectra Upgrade: A significant milestone expected in Q1 2025, combining Prague (execution) and Electra (consensus) upgrades.
  • Enhanced Performance and Scalability: Key features include EIP-3074 for wallet functionality and EIP-7251 increasing validator stake limits.
  • EIP-7702 for Account Abstraction: Replaces EIP-3074, allowing addresses to function as smart contracts, improving security and user experience.
  • PeerDAS (EIP-7594): Enhances roll-up scalability and transaction processing efficiency for Layer 2 solutions like Base and Arbitrum.
  • EIP-7251 and Stake Limits: Raises validator stake limit to 2,048 ETH, improving network efficiency but with increased slashing risk.
  • Cryptographic Improvements: EIPs like EIP-2537 and EIP-7549 boost security and performance with new cryptographic capabilities.
  • History Expiry: Reduces data storage burden on nodes, enhancing network efficiency.
  • Comparison to Dencun: Pectra focuses on smart contracts and staking, while Dencun emphasized transaction fees and data availability.
  • User and Investor Impact: Expect better network performance, security, scalability, and a more attractive investment environment.

How Will EIP-7702 Enhance Account Abstraction?

Ethereum network hub with validators and cosmic landscape background_2_11zon.webp

EIP-7702, part of the Ethereum Pectra upgrade, enhances account abstraction by allowing any address to function as a smart contract during transactions. This upgrade replaces EIP-3074, overcoming its limitations and providing a more integrated approach to account operations.

The benefits of EIP-7702 include enhanced functionality, as users can deploy and manage smart contracts directly from their accounts. This simplifies interactions with decentralized applications (dApps) and improves security by mitigating certain attack vectors found in earlier proposals. Additionally, it enhances user experience by reducing the need for multiple accounts and contract layers, making Ethereum more accessible.

However, the increased complexity might introduce new vulnerabilities, and ensuring backward compatibility may require significant updates. Moreover, complex account operations could lead to increased resource usage, impacting scalability and transaction costs.

What Benefits Does PeerDAS (EIP-7594) Bring to Roll-Up Scalability?

PeerDAS (EIP-7594) is a pivotal component of the Ethereum Pectra upgrade, aiming to significantly enhance roll-up scalability. By optimizing layer 2 solutions like Base and Arbitrum, PeerDAS improves the efficiency of transaction processing. This upgrade addresses the growing demand for scalable solutions within the Ethereum network.

The main objective of PeerDAS is to enhance the performance of layer 2 (L2) solutions, allowing for more efficient handling of increased transaction volumes. It achieves this by improving the data availability sampling process, which is crucial for roll-ups. 

As a result, PeerDAS is expected to significantly boost the scalability and efficiency of roll-ups, leading to faster transaction processing and reduced resource usage on the Ethereum network. This makes Ethereum more robust and capable of supporting a larger user base.

Why is EIP-7251 Increasing Stake Limits to 2,048 ETH?

Ethereum validators as crystalline structures with light beams_4_11zon.webp

EIP-7251 proposes increasing the maximum stake limit for Ethereum validators from 32 ETH to 2,048 ETH as part of the Ethereum Pectra upgrade. This change allows validators to consolidate their stakes into fewer, larger validators without exiting and re-entering the protocol, aiming to reduce the overall number of validators while maintaining the total staked ETH.

This increase in stake limits has several implications. It improves network efficiency by reducing latency and computational burden. However, it also raises the risk associated with slashing penalties, as larger stakes are at risk. Validators benefit from enhanced rewards, attracting more large-scale investments but potentially impacting network decentralization.

What Other Cryptographic Improvements Are Included in Pectra?

The Ethereum Pectra upgrade brings several significant cryptographic improvements to enhance network efficiency and security:

EIP-2537Introduces precompiled contracts for BLS12-381 curve operations, enhancing cryptographic performance, especially in zero-knowledge proofs.Boosts cryptographic capabilities and reduces gas costs for advanced cryptographic protocols.
EIP-7549Optimizes EVM operations to streamline processes and reduce gas costs.Improves overall efficiency within the Ethereum Virtual Machine.
Statelessness Gas Cost ChangesAdjusts gas costs to align with the Verkle tree design.Enhances network efficiency and security by optimizing gas usage.
EOF - Stack ValidationValidates the size of the operand stack during contract execution.Ensures integrity and prevents errors in smart contract execution.
PAY OpcodeSimplifies Ether transfers within smart contracts.Reduces complexity and potential errors in decentralized applications.
EOF - JUMPF and Non-Returning FunctionsEnhances control flow within the EVM with efficient conditional jumps and clearly defined non-returning functions.Optimizes contract execution and improves functionality.
SSZ Transactions RootTransitions transaction representation from Merkle Patricia Trie to Simple Serialize format.Improves transaction processing efficiency and security, especially for roll-ups and scaling solutions.

Is History Expiry Being Considered in the Pectra Upgrade?

Futuristic blockchain cityscape with nodes and digital energy waves_1_11zon.webp

The Ethereum Pectra upgrade includes the consideration of history expiry, which allows nodes to discard older state data beyond a certain number of blocks. This mechanism aims to reduce the burden of data storage on individual nodes and enhance network efficiency. 

By implementing history expiry, Ethereum will significantly decrease the amount of data each node needs to store, thus lowering hardware requirements and potentially reducing operational costs for validators and node operators. This change aligns with the goals of statelessness, ensuring that the network becomes more scalable and accessible to a wider range of participants.

How Does Pectra Compare to Previous Upgrades Like Dencun?

In comparing the Pectra upgrade to previous advancements like Dencun, it is essential to highlight the distinct scopes, anticipated benefits, and overall implications for the Ethereum network:

AspectPectra UpgradeDencun Upgrade
ScopeCombines Prague (execution layer) and Electra (consensus layer). Focuses on smart contract capabilities, staking limits, and EVM improvements.Combines Deneb (execution layer) and Cancun (consensus layer). Focuses on reducing transaction fees for layer-2 solutions and data availability optimizations.
Expected BenefitsEnhances wallet functionality with EIP-3074, increases staking limits with EIP-7251, and optimizes EVM performance with EOF and other EIPs.Reduces transaction fees with EIP-4844, and improves scalability and performance for decentralized applications by optimizing data handling.
Overall ImpactImproves user experience and security, network efficiency, and provides advanced developer tools, fostering ecosystem innovation.Reduces transaction costs, enhances scalability, and supports Ethereum's growing usage and adoption.

What Should Users and Investors Expect from the Pectra Upgrade?

Layer 2 rollups as floating islands with transaction processing_5_11zon.webp

The Ethereum Pectra upgrade promises significant improvements in network performance, security, and scalability. Users can expect enhanced efficiency in transaction processing, better gas efficiency, and optimized data storage. The introduction of Peer Data Availability Sampling (EIP-7594) will improve Layer 2 roll-up scalability, allowing the network to handle increased transaction volumes more effectively.

For investors, these Ethereum network improvements translate to a more attractive and robust ecosystem. Advanced cryptographic operations (EIP-2537) and improved consensus voting procedures (EIP-7549) will strengthen network security. 

The increased validator stake limits (EIP-7251) enhance decentralization and network security, potentially leading to higher adoption rates and a more vibrant investment environment. The Pectra upgrade's focus on user-friendliness and efficiency could drive greater adoption and solidify Ethereum's position as a leading blockchain platform.


The Ethereum Pectra upgrade marks a significant leap in Ethereum improvements, enhancing performance, security, and scalability. This pivotal update is set to benefit users and investors immensely.


What is the Ethereum Pectra upgrade?
The Ethereum Pectra upgrade is a significant update expected in Q1 2025, combining the Prague upgrade for the execution layer and the Electra upgrade for the consensus layer. It aims to enhance the network's performance, scalability, and security through several key Ethereum improvement proposals (EIPs).

Why is the Pectra upgrade important?
The Pectra upgrade is crucial because it introduces significant enhancements to Ethereum’s execution and consensus layers. These improvements aim to optimize transaction processing, increase validator stake limits, and improve smart contract functionality, ultimately making the network more efficient and scalable.

What are the key features of the Pectra upgrade?
Key features include EIP-3074 for enhanced wallet functionality, EIP-7251 for increased validator stake limits, Peer Data Availability Sampling (EIP-7594) for improved roll-up scalability, and various cryptographic improvements like EIP-2537 and EIP-7549.

This article has been refined and enhanced by ChatGPT.

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